I am trying to use the C++11 to support the smart pointer, but I find there is no shard_array in <memory>, so I try to use it in this way, and I know this maybe WRONG:

shared_ptr<int> sp(new int[10]);

Then run it, it coredumped as I guessed:

$ smart_ptr/Test_shared_array
Destructing a Foo with x=0
*** Error in `smart_ptr/Test_shared_array': munmap_chunk(): invalid pointer: 0x0000000001d58018 ***
[1]    14128 abort (core dumped)  smart_ptr/Test_shared_array

Use GDB to see more information:

(gdb) run
Starting program: /home/nasacj/projects/woodycxx/smart_ptr/Test_shared_array
Destructing a Foo with x=0
*** Error in `/home/nasacj/projects/woodycxx/smart_ptr/Test_shared_array': munmap_chunk(): invalid pointer: 0x0000000000603018 ***

Program received signal SIGABRT, Aborted.
0x00007ffff7530cc9 in __GI_raise (sig=sig@entry=6) at ../nptl/sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/raise.c:56
56	../nptl/sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/raise.c: No such file or directory.
(gdb) bt
#0  0x00007ffff7530cc9 in __GI_raise (sig=sig@entry=6) at ../nptl/sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/raise.c:56
#1  0x00007ffff75340d8 in __GI_abort () at abort.c:89
#2  0x00007ffff756df24 in __libc_message (do_abort=do_abort@entry=1, fmt=fmt@entry=0x7ffff767c6c8 "*** Error in `%s': %s: 0x%s ***\n") at ../sysdeps/posix/libc_fatal.c:175
#3  0x00007ffff7578c87 in malloc_printerr (action=<optimized out>, str=0x7ffff767ca48 "munmap_chunk(): invalid pointer", ptr=<optimized out>) at malloc.c:4996
#4  0x0000000000400d9f in _M_release (this=0x603050) at /usr/include/c++/4.8/bits/shared_ptr_base.h:144
#5  ~__shared_count (this=<optimized out>, __in_chrg=<optimized out>) at /usr/include/c++/4.8/bits/shared_ptr_base.h:546
#6  ~__shared_ptr (this=<optimized out>, __in_chrg=<optimized out>) at /usr/include/c++/4.8/bits/shared_ptr_base.h:781
#7  ~shared_ptr (this=<optimized out>, __in_chrg=<optimized out>) at /usr/include/c++/4.8/bits/shared_ptr.h:93
#8  test () at Test_shared_array.cpp:30
#9  0x0000000000400bc9 in main () at Test_shared_array.cpp:36
(gdb) quit

Then I realize that in Boost, user should provide a deleter to shared_ptr:

Then I find this in stackoverflow:

By default, shared_ptr will call delete on the managed object when no more references remain to it. However, when you allocate using new[] you need to call delete[], and not delete, to free the resource.

In order to correctly use shared_ptr with an array, you must supply a custom deleter.

template< typename T >
struct array_deleter
  void operator ()( T const * p)
    delete[] p;

Create the shared_ptr as follows

std::shared_ptr<int> sp( new int[10], array_deleter<int>() );

Now shared_ptr will correctly call delete[] when destroying the managed object.

With C++11, you can also use a lambda instead of the functor.

std::shared_ptr<int> sp( new int[10], []( int *p ) { delete[] p; } );

Also, unless you actually need to share the managed object, a unique_ptr is better suited for this task, since it has a partial specialization for array types.

std::unique_ptr<int[]> up( new int[10] ); // this will correctly call delete[]

Now there come the shared array STD version in practice:

//#include "shared_array.h"
#include <memory>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

struct Foo
    Foo() : x(0) {}
	Foo( int _x ) : x(_x) {}
	~Foo() { std::cout << "Destructing a Foo with x=" << x << "\n"; }
	int x;
	/* ... */

template< typename T >
struct array_deleter
  void operator ()( T const * p)
    delete[] p;

//typedef woodycxx::smart_prt::shared_array<Foo> FooArray;
typedef shared_ptr<Foo> FooArray;

void test()
	FooArray(new Foo[10], array_deleter<Foo>());

int main()
	return 0;

The Output:

$ ./Test_shared_array
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0
Destructing a Foo with x=0

Smart Pointer Programming Techniques

Using incomplete classes for implementation hiding
The “Pimpl” idiom
Using abstract classes for implementation hiding
Preventing delete px.get()
Using a shared_ptr to hold a pointer to an array
Encapsulating allocation details, wrapping factory functions
Using a shared_ptr to hold a pointer to a statically allocated object
Using a shared_ptr to hold a pointer to a COM object
Using a shared_ptr to hold a pointer to an object with an embedded reference count
Using a shared_ptr to hold another shared ownership smart pointer
Obtaining a shared_ptr from a raw pointer
Obtaining a shared_ptr (weak_ptr) to this in a constructor
Obtaining a shared_ptr to this
Using shared_ptr as a smart counted handle
Using shared_ptr to execute code on block exit
Using shared_ptr<void> to hold an arbitrary object
Associating arbitrary data with heterogeneous shared_ptr instances
Using shared_ptr as a CopyConstructible mutex lock
Using shared_ptr to wrap member function calls
Delayed deallocation
Weak pointers to objects not managed by a shared_ptr

When I am reading the UNIX Network Programming V3 :

Three-Way Handshake

The following scenario occurs when a TCP connection is established:

  1. The server must be prepared to accept an incoming connection. This is normally done by calling socket, bind, and listen and is called a passive open.

  2. The client issues an active open by calling connect. This causes the client TCP to send a “synchronize” (SYN) segment, which tells the server the client’s initial sequence number for the data that the client will send on the connection. Normally, there is no data sent with the SYN; it just contains an IP header, a TCP header, and possible TCP options (which we will talk about shortly).

  3. The server must acknowledge (ACK) the client’s SYN and the server must also send its own SYN containing the initial sequence number for the data that the server will send on the connection. The server sends its SYN and the ACK of the client’s SYN in a single segment.

  4. The client must acknowledge the server’s SYN.

I am wonderring what is the meaning of a PASSIVE open?

Do some search and take some notes here:

Same question from Stackoverflow:

What is the difference between ACTIVE and PASSIVE connect in RFC 1006 TCP connections?

It’s explained here: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc793

A passive OPEN request means that the process wants to accept incoming connection requests rather than attempting to initiate a connection.

In short passive OPEN are listen() and active OPEN are connect().


The TCP/IP Guide

TCP Connection Preparation: Transmission Control Blocks (TCBs) and Passive and Active Socket OPENs

Active and Passive OPENs

TCP/IP is based on the client/server model of operation, and TCP connection setup is based on the existence of these roles as well. The client and server each prepare for the connection by performing an OPEN operation. However, there are two different kinds of OPEN:

  • Active OPEN: A client process using TCP takes the “active role” and initiates the connection by actually sending a TCP message to start the connection (a SYN message).
  • Passive OPEN: A server process designed to use TCP, however, takes a more “laid-back” approach. It performs a passive OPEN by contacting TCP and saying “I am here, and I am waiting for clients that may wish to talk to me to send me a message on the following port number”. The OPEN is called passive because aside from indicating that the process is listening, the server process does nothing.

A passive OPEN can in fact specify that the server is waiting for an active OPEN from a specific client, though not all TCP/IP APIs support this capability. More commonly, a server process is willing to accept connections from all comers. Such a passive OPEN is said to be unspecified.

Key Concept: A client process initiates a TCP connection by performing an active OPEN, sending a SYN message to a server. A server process using TCP prepares for an incoming connection request by performing a passive OPEN. Both devices create for each TCP session a data structure used to hold important data related to the connection, called a transmission control block (TCB).

Preparation For Connection

Both the client and the server create the TCB for the connection at the time that they perform the OPEN. The client already knows the IP addresses and port numbers for both the client process and the server process it is trying to reach, so it can use these to uniquely identify the connection and the TCB that goes with it.

For the server, the concept of a TCB at this stage of the game is a bit more complex. If the server is in fact waiting for a particular client, it can identify the connection using its own socket and the socket of the client for which it is waiting. Normally, however, the server doesn’t know what client is trying to reach it. In fact, it could be contacted by more than one client nearly at the same time.

In this case, the server creates a TCB with an unspecified (zero) client socket number, and waits for an active OPEN to be received. It then binds the socket number of the client to the TCB for the passive OPEN as part of the connection process. To allow it to handle multiple incoming connections, the server process may in fact perform several unspecified passive OPENs simultaneously.

The transmission control block for a connection is maintained throughout the connection and destroyed when the connection is completely terminated and the device returns to the CLOSED state. TCP does include a procedure to handle the situation where both devices perform an active OPEN simultaneously. This is discussed in more detail in the next topic on the connection establishment process.